Master's degree For SAUs/CAUs, etc. M.Tech (Dairy Engineering/ Dairy Technology).
For NDRI only M. Tech./M.E. (Dairy Engineering / Dairy Technology / Agriculture Process & Food Engineering / Chemical Engineering / Dairy& Food Engineering / Electrical Engineering / Mechanical Engineering / Electronics and Communication Engg./ Post-Harvest Process & Food Engineering / Food Technology.) Candidates must have 4 years B. Tech / B.E. degree.
The examination consisting of 120 questions to be attempted in a duration of 2 hrs (120 minutes) will have three parts:
Part A-20 items pertaining to general knowledge in agriculture and allied sciences / reasoning ability + Part B-50 items from core group containing the specialized subject for Ph.D. + Part C-50 items from the specialized subject for Ph.D.
39 DAIRY ENGINEERING
Unit 1: Dairy and Food Engineering-I
Basics of fluid mechanics, pumps, Concept of rheology: ideal elastic, plastic and viscous behaviour, viscoelasticity, rheological properties, Food texture, Freezing, freezing curves, freezing time, freezing equipment, freeze drying, freeze concentration.
Unit 2: Evaporation and Drying
Evaporation techniques and evaporators, drying fundamentals and type of dryers, spray dryer, equipments for separation and product recovery.
Unit 3: Dairy and Food Engineering-II
Water activity and its measurement methods, water sorption isotherms, sorption hysteresis, IMF and their application; Permeability and shelf-life, permeability to gases and vapours, measurement methods, permeability of multilayer materials, Membrane types, properties and selection of membrane; microwave heating processes and parameters.
Unit 4: Thermal Engineering
Basics of thermodynamics and heat transfer,vapour and gas power cycles, fins, fin efficiency, effectiveness. Heat Exchangers: classification, LMTD, effectiveness-NTU approach, Fick’s law of diffusion, equimodal diffusion, mass transfer coefficients. Dimensionless numbers used in heat and mass transfer.
Unit 5: Process Equipment Design
Dairy processing equipments, equipment for aseptic processing and packaging, Pressure vessels: codes and regulations, design for pressure and temperature, allowable stress, corrosion control, cylindrical and spherical shells, formed heads, reinforcement openings, tests and non-destructive examination, design and stress evaluation; milk storage tank: horizontal silos, vertical silos, insulated and un-insulated, nozzles and mountings; constructional features and material for high pressure vessels; multi shell construction; solid walled vessel; bracket support; leg support, skirt support, saddle support; construction codes and design considerations for heat exchangers.
Unit 6: Refrigeration Engineering
Vapour compression refrigeration system: major components and their different types; theoretical and actual vapour compression cycle; Effect of operating parameters on COP; multi-pressure commercial refrigeration systems; Vapour absorption refrigeration system. Heat Pumps: Design and construction of cold storage and air-conditioning systems: cooling loads and calculation, Psychometry. Equipment selection, insulating materials, vapour barriers, Ice bank tank.
Unit 7: Instrumentation and Process Control
Elements of generalized measurement system, static and dynamic characteristics of instruments. Transducers for measurement of process variables like temperature, pressure, flow, level, consistency, pH and humidity. Indicating and Recording Devices: Digital indicators, strip and circular chart recorders. Principles of Automatic Process Control: Process characteristics, control system parameters, discontinuous, continuous and composite control modes, PLC.
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