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Master's degree in Veterinary Science with specialization in Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology / Veterinary Pharmacology.

Exam Pattern

The examination consisting of 120 questions to be attempted in a duration of 2 hrs (120 minutes) will have three parts:
Part A-20 items pertaining to general knowledge in agriculture and allied sciences / reasoning ability + Part B-50 items from core group containing the specialized subject for Ph.D. + Part C-50 items from the specialized subject for Ph.D.



Unit 1: General Pharmacology

Development and Scope, branches of pharmacology, Terminology, Sources and nature of drugs. Pharmacopoeia and drug compendia. Drug Schedules. Factor modifying drug activity. Concepts of pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics Gene based therapy, overview of indigenous medicinal plants its active principles in therapeutic use. Pharmacodynamics: Drug structure activity relationship. Drug receptor interaction. Role of secondary messengers. Drug modulation via different types of channels. Characterisation of agonist, antagonists. Pharamacokinetics: Principles, Drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Factors modifying drug kinetics. Kinetic constants. Different models, determination of kinetic parameters and application in rational dosage regimen. Pharmacometrics:Drug discovery and development process. Multidimensional screening methods, bioassays.Determination of median doses - LD50, ED50, therapeutic indices. Types of dose response relationship.

Unit 2: Drugs Acting on Central Nervous System

Role of neurotransmitters in CNS. Sedatives, Hypnotics, General anaesthetics, Hypotheses and clinical stages of anaesthesia. Pre-and post-anesthetics, Molecular mechanism of action of inhalant and parenteral anesthetics. Anticonvulsants. Tranquilizers. Narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics and antipyretics. Drugs affecting behaviour.Drug dependence and addiction and abuses.CNS stimulants. Muscle relaxants. Local anaesthetics.

Unit 3: Drugs Acting on Humoral and Autonomic Nervous Systems

Neurohumoral transmission. Adrenergic and antiadrenergic drugs including adrenergic neuron blockers. Cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs.Purinergic and Adenosine receptors. Dopaminergic and antidopaminergic agents. Nitric oxide mediators. Neuromuscular and ganglion stimulants and ganglion blockers.

Unit 4: Drugs Acting on Cardio-vascular and Respiratory Systems

Drugs acting on heart and blood vessles. Antihypotensive and anti-arrhythmic agents.Blood coagulants and anticoagulants. Heamatinics. Haemorrhagic shock and its treatment. Expectorants, antitussives. Cough sedatives. Bronchodilators. Mucolytic agents. Analeptics.

Unit 5: Drugs Acting on Digestive System

Stomachics. Antacids. Carminatives and antizymotics. Emetics and antemetics.Cathartics. Antidiarrhoeal agents. Antispasmodics. Pharmacology of rumen and rumenotoric drugs. Drugs acting on hepatobiliary system.

Unit 6: Drug acting on Urogenital System

General principles of electrolyte therapy. Drugs altering fluid balance. Diuretics and antidiuretics. Drugs acting on uterus (oxytocics and tocolytics).Therapy of infertility and improving conception and synchronization of oestrus.

Unit 7: Endocrine Pharmacology

Mode of action and synthesis of pituitary hormones. Therapeutics of non-pituitary gonadotropin, adrenocorticoids, sex hormones, insulin, thyroid hormones, antithyroid agents, calcitonin, parathormone.

Unit 8: Autacoids

Pharmacological effects and therapeutics of histamine, antihistaminic agents, 5-HT its antagonists, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, peptides and kinins, rennin and angiotensins. Platelet activators.Anti-inflammatory drugs.

Unit 9: Chemotherapy

General principles. Classification of antibiotics based on chemistry, mechanism of action, etc., Drug allergy, hypersensitivity, mechanism of resistance development. Veterinary drug residues and its impacts.Extra label usage of antibiotics.Withdrawal period for antibiotics.Antiseptics and Disinfectants. Antibiotics: beta lactams (Penicillin, cephalosporins, etc.) protein synthesis inhibitors (aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol and macrolide/lincosamides, Quinolones, nitrofurans, polypeptide and other miscellaneous and emerging antibiotics. Sulphonamides, thrimethoprim and derivatives.Antifungal, antitubercular, antiviral and antineoplastic drugs.Anthelminitic: Antinematodal, anticestodal, antitrematodal drugs. Antiprotozoans, Anticoccidials. Drugs used for ectoparasite control.

Unit 10: Toxicology

Terminology, Classification of poisons,Toxicity rating, Principles of selective toxicity,Toxicodynamics,Toxicokinetics, Diagnosis and treatment of poisoning (anti-dotal and non- antidotal).Mechanism of detoxification.Poisons causing respiratory insufficiency.Toxicology of common inorganic compounds.Toxicity of metals, nonmetals and metalloids. Poisonous plant-cyanogenic, nitrate and oxalate producers. Mycotoxins : aflatoxin, rubratoxin, ergot. Toxic ferns. Venoms from snakes, scorpions, toads, etc. and treatment.

Unit 11: Ecotoxicology

Toxicity of pesticides, fungicides, weedicides, fertilizers on biosphere. Chemical warfare agents and radiation hazards.Toxicity from food additives, preservatives.Statutory regulation on agrochemical formulation and their uses. Recent advances in evaluation of cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, embroyotoxicity.

Unit 12: Miscellaneous Topics

Drugs promoting growth and production. Agents used for doping and restraining of wild animals. Euthanising agents. Drug control and regulation.

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