Master's degree For SAUs/CAUs, etc. Dairy Microbiology/ Veterinary/Animal Sciences with specialization in Dairy Microbiology.
For NDRI only – Dairy Microbiology/ Veterinary/Animal Sciences with specialization in Dairying/Microbiology/Biotechnology/Medical Microbiology/Industrial Microbiology/Food Safety and Quality Assurance.
The examination consisting of 120 questions to be attempted in a duration of 2 hrs (120 minutes) will have three parts:
Part A-20 items pertaining to general knowledge in agriculture and allied sciences / reasoning ability + Part B-50 items from core group containing the specialized subject for Ph.D. + Part C-50 items from the specialized subject for Ph.D.
36 DAIRY MICROBIOLOGY
Unit 1: Scope and History of Microbiology
Scope and history of Microbiology; Diversity and taxonomy of microorganisms; Cell wall, structure, synthesis and inhibition, cell membrane, ribosomes, capsule, flagella, pili; Principles and functions of light, phase, fluorescent and electron microscopes; Fungi, viruses, viriods, prions; Bacterial growth: phases and kinetics, factors affecting bacterial growth, growth measurement; Bacterial nutrition and growth factors; Active and passive transport, Electron transport chain; Metabolism and bioenergetics, respiration and fermentation, bacterial photosynthesis.
Unit 2: Microbial Genetics
DNA and RNA, DNA structure and replication; Gene Expression and its regulation in Prokaryotes - Transcription, Genetic Code, Translation; Negative and positive regulation of gene expression; Operon Models; Mutations, physical and chemical mutagens, Damage and Repair; Plasmids, transposable elements, Insertion sequences; Bacterial Recombination; Recombinant DNA technology - Restriction enzymes, Plasmid Vectors, PCR and Real Time PCR, Application of genetic engineering in dairying.
Unit 3: Microbiological Quality of milk
Microbes in milk, sources of contamination, microbiological changes in milk during production and processing, mastitis; Antimicrobial systems in milk, Role of psychrotrophic, mesophillic, thermophilic and thermodurics in spoilage of milk; Microbiological defects and their control; Food poisoning, infections, toxi-infections and pathogens associated with milk and milk products and their prevention; Biofilms, their role in transmission of pathogens and preventive strategies, Microbiological standards and quality of dairy products (cream, butter, dried and evaporated milk, sweetened condensed milk, frozen dairy products, and indigenous dairy products).
Unit 4: Microbiology of Processed Foods
Microbiology of processed foods; Thermal processes for shelf stable-products, low temperature food preservation, concepts in irradiation technology; Biopreservation, Bacteriocins, antimicrobial and antifungal substances; Intermediate moisture foods and hurdle concept, stress induced injury, drug resistance in pathogens, industrial strategies for safe foods; Methods for controlling spoilage of foods; New emerging methods of preservation; Active/intelligent and antimicrobial packaging, modified atmosphere packaging; Milk derived bioactive proteins and peptides; Microencapsulation, GM foods, Functional foods and nutraceuticals.
Unit 5: Starter Cultures and Probiotics
Lactic Acid Bacteria, characteristics of dairy starter organisms : Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Propionibacterium; lactose, galactose and glucose metabolism, homo- and hetero-lactic fermentation, citrate metabolism and formation of flavouring compounds, proteolytic systems and protein metabolism, Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of LAB; Adjunct starter organisms; Genetics of starter cultures: plasmids; genetic modification of starter cultures; single, mixed, multiple strain, mesophilic, thermophilic starters, propagation and preservation, concentrated and super-concentrated starters, bulk culture systems; Inhibition of LAB by antibiotics, bacteriocins; immunoglobulins and bacteriophage; starter cultures of fermented milks: lactic, yeast-lactic, mould-lactic fermented milk products - dahi, lassi, yoghurt, acidophilus milk, cultured buttermilk, koumiss, kefir, starter cultures of cheeses, microbiology of fresh and ripened cheeses, accelerated cheese ripening, microbiological spoilage and safety of fermented dairy products, Nutraceutcials, probiotics and functional fermented foods (dairy and non-dairy), Mechanism of action of probiotics and their health benefits, and regulations.
Unit 6: Quality Assurance
Microbiological criteria; Sampling methods; Establishment of microbiological standards, guidelines and specifications for milk and milk products; Indicator Organisms; Selection criteria -for -their -use as quality and safety indicators; Conventional and rapid detection methods including commercial kits for indicator and pathogenic bacteria; Characteristics, classification and components of microbial bio-sensors; detector system; Application of microbial bio-sensors in monitoring pathogens, antibiotic and pesticide residues and aflatoxin Ml; Quality assurance in dairying; Bio-safety levels; Standard microbiological practices.
Unit 7: Fermentation Technology
Fermenter/ Bioreactor design, Types of fermentation, submerged/solid state, Batch/ continuous fermentation, Fermentation kinetics, Product recovery, Immobilization, Downstream processing, Industrial production of Lactic acid, Industrial production of Penicillin, Industrial production of enzymes, Beta- galactosidase, amino acids, vitamins, ethanol and SCP.
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