Master's degree in Veterinary Science with specialization in Poultry Science.
The examination consisting of 120 questions to be attempted in a duration of 2 hrs (120 minutes) will have three parts:
Part A-20 items pertaining to general knowledge in agriculture and allied sciences / reasoning ability + Part B-50 items from core group containing the specialized subject for Ph.D. + Part C-50 items from the specialized subject for Ph.D.
21 POULTRY SCIENCE
Unit 1: Poultry Genetics and Breeding
Phylogeny of poultry species, class, breed, variety and strains of chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys and other species of poultry. Mendelian traits in poultry. Inheritance of qualitative traits in poultry and their usefulness. Inheritance of comb, plumage and other qualitative traits. Sex-linked and sex influenced traits, their inheritance and usefulness. Economically important traits and their modes of inheritance. Gene action influencing the traits. Lethal and semi- lethal traits in poultry and their mode of inheritance. Quantitative traits. Inheritance of egg number, egg weight, growth rate, livability, fertility, hatchability, egg quality and other economic traits. Heritability and their estimates. Genetic correlations, their computation and application. Selection methods for genetic improvementnatural, artificial, directional, disruptive and stabilizing. Individual selection and family selection. Mass selection, combined selection and indirect selection. Construction of selection indices. Exploitation of additive and nonadditive gene effects. Selection for specific characters. Recurrent and reciprocal recurrent selection. Part record versus complete record selection. Genotype and environment interaction. Relative merits and demerits of different methods of selection. Different mating systems-Diallel mating, pair mating, pen mating and block mating. Artificial insemination - collection and insemination techniques, dilution, diluents and cryopreservation of semen. Inbreeding and out¬breeding. Pure-line breeding. Cross-breeding. Hybridization and hybrid vigour in improving economic traits, 3-way and 4-way crossing and development of hybrids. Modern trends in commercial poultry breeding. Major genes and their usefulness in poultry breeding in tropics. Dwarf gene and its usefulness in broiler breeding. Practical breeding programmes for developing broilers and layers. Selection for disease resistance. Immunogenetics. Blood group systems. Biochemical polymorphism and usefulness in poultry breeding. Development of transgenic chicken. Different molecular techniques for estimation of genetic diversity and similarity among breeds and lines of poultry. Scope of integrating quantitative and molecular approaches for genetic selection in poultry.
Unit 2: Poultry Nutrition
Various nutrients and their role in poultry. Nutrient requirements of different species of poultry as per Bureau of Indian Standards and National Research Council of the USA. Partition of energy. Estimation of M.E. and T.M.E. Essential and critical amino acids and their inter-relationships. Evaluation of protein quality. Essential fatty acids. Essential vitamins and minerals and their functions. Nutrients deficiency, toxicity, synergism and antagonism. Naturally occurring toxicants, their adverse effects on poultry and methods to overcome them. Fungal exotoxins of feed origin, their adverse effects on poultry, and methods to overcome them. Different systems of feeding wet mash, dry mash, crumble and pellet feeding. Restricted and phase feeding programme. Male separate feeding. Factors influencing the feed intake. Feed ingredients and sources of various nutrients. Quality control and BIS specifications for feed ingredients. Unconventional feed stuffs and their utilization for economic feed formulation. Feed formulation for different species and groups. Least cost feed formulation and linear programming. Non - nutrient feed additives. Antibiotics, probiotics - direct feed microbials, prebiotics, synbiotics, organic acids, enzymes, antimicrobials, anticoccidials, performance-promoters, antioxidants, flavouring agents, colouring agents and other non-nutrient feed additives.
Unit 3: Avian Physiology
Homeostasis and its regulation; Characteristics features of endocrine glands; Regulation of feed and water intake; Feed Passage rate in G.I. tract in relation to digestion and absorption efficiency; Functional regulation of digestion, absorption and metabolism of nutrients; Endocrine control and variable factors influencing growth process; Mechanisms that determines the sex and allows the development of left ovary and oviduct only; Physiological control of age at sexual maturity, ovarian follicular hierarchy, atresia, ovulation, oviposition, pause, clutch size and secretion of egg components; Photoperiodism and its role in optimization of reproductive functions; physiology of avian testes, spermatogenesis, semen ejaculation and its characteristics. Fate of sperm in oviduct and fertilization; Respiratory system - mechanisms of gaseous exchange; Thermoregulatory and stress mechanisms; Physiobiochemical stress responses and remedial approaches; Factors influencing reproductive functioning.
Unit 4: Poultry Products Technology
Structure, chemical composition and nutritive value of egg. Various measures of egg quality. Shell, albumen and yolk quality assessment. Factors influencing egg quality traits. Mechanism of deterioration of egg quality. Weight and quality grades of egg as per BIS, Agmark and USDA standards. Egg processing and storage. Different methods of preservation of table eggs and their relative merits and demerits. Preparation of various egg products and their uses. Processing, packing, preservation and grading of poultry meat. Further processing and fast food preparation. Physical, chemicals, microbial and organoleptic evaluation of meat quality. Processing and utilization of egg and poultry processing waste.
Unit 5: Poultry Management
Poultry industry in India - past, present and future prospects. Statistics of egg and meat production in India. Major constraints facing the poultry industry. Selection, care and storage of hatching eggs. Principles and methods of incubation. Concept of modern hatcheries. Factors essential for incubation of eggs. Testing of eggs. High altitudes and hatchability of eggs. Embryonic communication. Photo acceleration and embryonic growth. Factors influencing hatchability and production of quality chicks. Analyzing hatchability problems. Hatchery hygiene. Fumigation procedure. Prevention of hatchery borne diseases. Utilization and disposal of hatchery waste. Prerequisite of good hatchery. Lay out of a modern hatchery. Equipments required in a modern hatchery. Single and multi-stage incubators. Hatchery business. Sexing, handling, packaging and transportation of chicks. Principles and methods of brooding. Space required for brooding, rearing, feeding and watering. Preparation of brooder house to receive young chicks. Forced feeding of turkey poults. Brooding of quails, ducklings and turkey poults. Managements during growing period. Overcrowding, culling. Management of replacement pullets for egg production and breeding stocks. Management of layers and breeders. Light management. Debeaking, dubbing and other farm routines. Littre management. Broodiness and forced moulting in layers. Management of turkey, ducks, quails and Guinea fowl. Summer and winter management. Farm location and site selection. Ideal layout of poultry houses for different systems of rearing. Design of poultry houses like brooder, grower, broiler, layer and cage house, poultry processing unit, feed mill, etc. Environmentally controlled and open poultry houses. Types of construction materials used. Cross-ventilation and ridge ventilation. Effect of pollution on production performance of birds. Ammonia control in poultry houses. Type of brooders, feeders, waters, laying nests, cages, etc. Automation in poultry production.
Unit 6: Economics and Marketing
Economic principles as applied to poultry production. Production functions. Farm size-resources and product combinations, efficiency criteria in use of resources in poultry production. Cost concept. Maintenance and evaluation of different production records. Insurance and financing of poultry enterprises. Project formulation for setting up of poultry farms and hatcheries. Production and requirement of poultry products in India and for exports. Various marketing channels. Transportation of eggs and chicken. Marketing approaches. Horizontal and vertical integration in poultry industry and their importance. Price spread in marketing of poultry and poultry products. Role of cooperatives in poultry farming.
Unit 7: Poultry Health Management
Common diseases of poultry - bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoan, parasitic and other emerging diseases of poultry, their prevention, control and treatment. Metabolic and nutrient deficiency diseases and disorders. Vaccination programmes. Deworming programmes. Control of coccidiosis, worms, ectoparasites and flies. Medication procedures. Cleaning and disinfection of poultry houses. Drinking water sanitation. General farm sanitation and hygiene. Safe disposal of dead birds and farm waste. Stress control. Heat stroke. Cold shock. Vices of poultry and their control. Bio-security measures in poultry farms.
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